0%

Kustomize:自定义YAML资源文件

kustomize简介

kustomize是一个自定义管理原始的YAML模板资源文件的工具,同时无需修改原始的YAML文件。

对于kustomize的理解是,它借助了docker镜像的类似概念:可以一层层的进行覆盖。

Kustmoize有Base和Overlay 2个概念,被依赖的层成为base,当前进行覆盖操作的层成为overlay。所以1个overlay,也可以是另外overlay的base。

Kustomize base和overlay

在kubectl v1.14之后,其中融合了kustomize,也就说如果安装了kubectl无需安装kustomize,即可使用kustomize。

把kustmoize的资源文件部署到集群有2个办法:

  1. 通过kubectl内置的kustomize:kubectl apply -k $KUSTOMIZE_DIR 应用到集群。
  2. 集合kustomize和kubectl: kustomize build $KUSTOMIZE_DIR | kubectl apply -f -应用到集群。

base

nginx-deployment.yaml:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: nginx
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: nginx
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: nginx
spec:
containers:
- image: nginx:1.9.1
name: nginx
ports:
- containerPort: 80
name: http
volumeMounts:
- mountPath: /user/share/nginx/html
name: data
restartPolicy: Always
volumes:
- name: data
emptyDir: {}

kustomization.yaml :

1
2
3
4
5
commonLabels:
app: kustomize-nginx

resources:
- nginx-deployment.yaml

build的效果就是,把列出来的resources中的label,都换成app: kustomize-nginx:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
$ diff <(kustomize build .) nginx-deployment.yaml
4,5d3
< labels:
< app: kustomize-nginx
6a5,6
> labels:
> app: nginx
10c10
< app: kustomize-nginx
---
> app: nginx
14c14
< app: kustomize-nginx
---
> app: nginx
17,24c17,24
< - image: nginx:1.9.1
< name: nginx
< ports:
< - containerPort: 80
< name: http
< volumeMounts:
< - mountPath: /user/share/nginx/html
< name: data
---
> - image: nginx:1.9.1
> name: nginx
> ports:
> - containerPort: 80
> name: http
> volumeMounts:
> - mountPath: /user/share/nginx/html
> name: data
27,28c27,28
< - emptyDir: {}
< name: data
---
> - name: data
> emptyDir: {}

应用到k8s,并且查看label。

1
2
3
4
5
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/base]$ kubectl apply -k .
deployment.apps/nginx created
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/base]$ kubectl get deploy -o wide
NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE CONTAINERS IMAGES SELECTOR
nginx 1/1 1 1 7s nginx nginx:1.9.1 app=kustomize-nginx

overlay

修改副本数量

kustomization.yaml:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
namePrefix: testing-
commonLabels:
app: kustomize-nginx
variant: testing
group: test

bases:
- ../../base

patchesStrategicMerge:
- nginx-deployment.yaml
  • namePrefix: 资源前缀,比如deployment名称以namePrefix: testing-开头。

  • commonLabels:会使用的标签

  • bases:所基于的base文件
  • patchesStrategicMerge:用合并的方式做path,列出涉及的文件。

nginx-deployment.yaml 为patch的内容:

1
2
3
4
5
6
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
name: nginx
spec:
replicas: 2

名称metadata.name应当与base中的名称相同,因为使用名称做匹配,所做的patch是当前overlay,名为nginx的deployment的副本数量为2。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$ kubectl apply -k .
deployment.apps/testing-nginx created
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay/testing]$
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay/testing]$ kubectl get deployment
NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE
nginx 1/1 1 1 19m
testing-nginx 2/2 2 2 8s

覆盖镜像

kustomization.yaml:

  • 前缀设置为develop,更新相应tag
  • 通过images更新镜像
  • Nginx deployment的副本数量修改为5,这种方式与上一个修改副本数量相比更简洁。
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
namePrefix: dev-
commonLabels:
app: dev-nginx
variant: dev
group: develop

bases:
- ../../base
images:
- name: nginx
newTag: 1.19.0
replicas:
- name: nginx
count: 5

部署到集群:发现kubectl内置的kustomize的replicas并没有得到支持,可能是内置的kustomize版本较老,使用kustomize + kubectl的方式可以部署到集群。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay]$ kubectl delete -k develop
error: json: unknown field "replicas"
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay]$ kustomize build develop | kubectl apply -f -
deployment.apps/dev-nginx created
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay]$
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay]$ kubectl get deploy -o wide
NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE CONTAINERS IMAGES SELECTOR
dev-nginx 5/5 5 5 17s nginx nginx:1.19.0 app=dev-nginx,group=develop,variant=dev
nginx 1/1 1 1 10h nginx nginx:1.9.1 app=kustomize-nginx
testing-nginx 2/2 2 2 10h nginx nginx:1.9.1 app=kustomize-nginx,group=test,variant=testing

https://kubectl.docs.kubernetes.io/references/kustomize/images/

更多功能

参考kustomize reference

kustomize常用命令

build

使用配置文件生成资源的YAML文件,并打印到标准输出。配合kubectl命令可以把资源部署到集群。

edit

通过命令行修改kustomization.yaml文件。这种办法可以方便的放到脚本中去修改kustomization.yaml,而不是手动去修改。比如operator-sdk的样例,通过edit命令指定资源所要使用的镜像。

edit的set命令可以做以下几样事:

1
2
3
4
5
6
Available Commands:
image Sets images and their new names, new tags or digests in the kustomization file
nameprefix Sets the value of the namePrefix field in the kustomization file.
namespace Sets the value of the namespace field in the kustomization file
namesuffix Sets the value of the nameSuffix field in the kustomization file.
replicas Sets replicas count for resources in the kustomization file

通过命令行修改前缀和镜像:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay]$ cp -r develop develop-dabin
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay/develop-dabin]$ kustomize edit set nameprefix "develop-dabin-"
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay/develop-dabin]$ kustomize edit set image "nginx:1.18.0"
[~/workspace/notes/kubernetes/examples/kustomize/overlay/develop-dabin]$ head kustomization.yaml
namePrefix: develop-dabin-
commonLabels:
app: dev-nginx
group: develop
variant: dev

images:
- name: nginx
newTag: 1.18.0
replicas:

edit命令除了set外,还有add、remove、fix,能够更加完整的通过命令编辑kustomization.yaml文件。

本文样例:examples/kustomize

参考资料

欢迎关注我的其它发布渠道